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Code, test, debug, repeat. A daily routine of any developer consists of these three main activities with complementary challenges added as bonuses to each of them. 

Luckily, the strong-growing popularity of Python has provided programmers with a wide range of granted frameworks, libraries, and IDEs to facilitate their workflow. 

Today, we will discuss top Python frameworks, their advantages, and disadvantages to help you pick up the best for the development of your application.

What is the Python Framework

Python web framework makes the development process faster and easier by providing a collection of packages and modules that enable programmers to write web apps or services. Web frameworks free software engineers from managing routine tasks such as low-level details like protocols, thread management, etc, giving them the ability to concentrate on application logic. 

Main Things You Should Know Before Choosing the Right One

As of November 2021, Python has finally taken the place of C in the list of most popular programming languages. It comes as no surprise that the number of those willing to program in Python has been also growing, keeping Python the most wanted language for the fifth year in a row, according to the Stack Overflow Developer Survey

TIOBE index

As a result, the corresponding technologies of Python are also rising in popularity, in particular, frameworks.

The first thing you should take into account while choosing the best framework for Python is the size and complexity of your project: microframeworks for smaller projects and full-stack for larger projects with a lot of features.

Next, check the ability of the framework to scale horizontally and vertically to make sure you will be able to add additional features, run the application on different servers, and more.

Differentiation of Python Web Frameworks

Full-Stack Framework

A full-stack framework is known as an all-in-one solution that supports the development of front-end UI, back-end logic, and communication with databases. Full-stack frameworks are among the most convenient and popular Python frameworks as they meet all application building requirements.

Microframework

A microframework is a so-called non-full-stack framework as it doesn’t possess extra functionalities and features. This type of framework provides only the essential set of features and requires extensions for the rest. Though such frameworks are easier to start development as you don’t have to make a lot of decisions.

Asynchronous Framework

Python asynchronous framework has gained a lot of popularity especially since the release of the asyncio library in the 3.5 version. Such frameworks allow users to operate huge sets of concurrent connections, provide high-performance networks, web servers, connection libraries, databases, and more.

Best Web Frameworks for Python in Detail

Django
#1 Django
Django is the most popular Python framework for large-scale web application and website development. The main principles of Django are DRY (don’t repeat yourself) which eliminates the need to rewrite the same code several times and the principle of rapid development that allows doing more than one iteration at once without starting from the beginning. The MVC architecture allows engineers to work with the visual presentation and business logic of the application separately. In comparison with other open-source frameworks, Django has the best documentation in the market that is constantly improved. NASA, Instagram, Reddit, Pinterest, and many other famous companies enjoy the speed, security, and flexibility of Django. All in all, Django is the best Python web framework for big, complex projects though its capabilities might be overkill for a small project. Key Features of Django: Business logic and visual parts separated at the architecture level; Developed infrastructure: an enormous number of libraries and plugins; An ORM (Object Relational Mapper); SEO friendly; High scalability; Highly secure; A large community that makes it easy to find answers to various questions.
#2 Flask
Flask is a good alternative to Django if you need to develop a smaller application though it also has the ability to scale up to complex apps. It’s a lightweight, feature-rich framework with the BSD license to get started quickly and easily with a fast-growing community and huge documentation. The microframework allows you to build your own modules and add any extensions you need. Flask rests on two external libraries: template engine Jinja2 and toolkit Werkzeug WSGI. Thanks to the modular frontend design, rich functionality, routing, plugging in any ORM, Flask is a swiftly adaptable and flexible Python framework. Key Features of Flask: Built-in development server and fast debugger; HTTP request handling functionality; High flexibility; Integrated support for unit testing; URL routing; Secure cookies; Request dispatching.
Bottle
#3 Bottle
Bottle is also one of the most popular microframeworks for Python which is perfect for rapid development and small web applications. It’s a WSGI-compliant, fast, simple, lightweight framework and is distributed as a single file module. Being originally developed for building APIs, Bottle implements everything in a single source file and includes minimal tools such as routing, templating, etc. The learning curve is extremely easy for those with basic knowledge of Python and web development. The Bottle framework is the most useful for building simple applications and is a perfect choice for those who look for great flexibility. Key Features of Bottle: Clean and dynamic URL routes and mapping; Speed optimization; Built-in HTTP development server; Plugin support for various databases; Integrated template engine.
CherryPy
#4 CherryPy
CherryPy is one of the oldest Python frameworks that run on any OS and has its own inserted multi-threaded web server. It leverages the strengths of Python as a dynamic language to model and binds HTTP into APIs. The microframework is object-oriented and open-source and allows using any type of technology for data access, templating, etc. Also, CherryPy user is able to run a number of HTTP web servers at the same time. Controller modules and a setup framework help engineers faster form data access, and handle sessions and file uploads easier. With a clean interface and reliable scaffolding for the engineers to build from, CherryPy remains an excellent tool to develop smaller source code in less time. Key Features of CherryPy: A flexible built-in plugin system; A powerful configuration and installation system; Built-in support for testing, profiling, and coverage; Fast development time; The old and strong community is always ready to help.
Pyramid
#5 Pyramid
Pyramid is a small, lightweight, easy-to-start web framework under a BSD-like license. It allows programmers to develop equally well both small and full-scale applications. What is more, it has great functionality to start small and if needed grow the complexity of your codebase what makes it a strong competitor to Django for some projects. It’s an open-source WSGI Python framework with very rich official documentation on its site and active community. With its great flexibility, Pyramid offers developers an ability to choose their own templating system, database layer, and more leveraging its extensive set of plugins. Summing up, Pyramid is the fastest known Python web framework that doesn’t make you choose “small app” or “large app”. Key Features of Pyramid: Built-in sessions; Supports single file webapps like microframeworks; Extensible configuration; URL generation; Powerful debugger; Serve static assets; Predicates and renderers.
Dash
#6 Dash
Having an extensive library that makes the development of data-driven applications much easier, Dash perfectly suits data scientists who don’t have much expertise in web development. It’s an open-source framework written on top of Flask for the webserver functionality but also may be built with plotly.js, or React.js. With the help of regular Python, it allows creating interactive dashboards without worrying about back-end code, requests, and routes. The framework is exclusively designed for developing analytical applications and offers a wide variety of database customization options to make building Python dashboards as easy as possible. Despite being a relatively young framework, Dash Enterprise is used by 10% of Fortune 500 companies. Key Features of Dash: URL routing; LDAP integration; Plugin support; Simple UI; Design flexibility.
Falcon
#7 Falcon
Falcon is a lightweight WSGI library for developing swift web APIs and application backends. Compared to Django and Flask, Python turns around requests even faster and keeps logic paths simple and understandble. It doesn’t have any dependencies outside the standard library which makes the application’s attack surface smaller at the same time keeping away from transitive bugs and breaking changes. A rather big community has created a number of blog posts, podcasts, and talks where developers can seek a piece of advice or add their own resources. Due to its reliability, stability, and accuracy, Falcon has become a choice of Paypal, LinkedIn, and other large companies. Key Features of Falcon: Simple API modeling through centralized RESTful routing; DRY request processing; Idiomatic HTTP error responses Highly optimized, extendable codebase; Stable interfaces with the accent on backward compatibility.
Hug
#8 Hug
Hug is an API development microframework implemented in Python 3. Being fast, incredibly simple, and clean, Hug has become a powerful competitor to popular frameworks such as Flask. The prior goal of Hug is to simplify developing Python-driven APIs. Hug supports provision for adding extensions, however, is limited to input/output handling, routing, and type annotations. Hug’s community is still growing the same as the popularity of the framework, so in case of any difficulties in the development process, you’ll have whom to address. Key Features of Hug: Displays API logic through various interfaces (HTTP, CLI, or a local function); Built-in version management; Offers hug.test module to test the full Python stack of the API; Compliance with Cython; Supports automatic documentation.
Tornado
#9 Tornado
Tornado is an open-source Python framework and asynchronous networking library tool. It’s used for building high concurrent user amount applications. It’s able to scale to 10,000+ open connections, making it an excellent choice for apps that require long-lived connections to each user. The Tornado framework is different from the majority of Python web frameworks. Unlike most of them, it’s not based on WSGI and runs with only one thread per process. Tornado is a perfect tool for building apps that aim at high performance and thousands of simultaneous users. Key Features of Tornado: High-quality performance; Real-time services; Non-blocking HTTP client; Web templating.

Summary

There is a wagon of different options for Python engineers. In this article, we’ve mentioned only those that are the most worth considering in 2022, in our opinion. 

A good idea, to begin with, is to clearly define your goals, project scope, and human resources available. There isn’t a framework that would meet the requirements of every app and developer. We recommend you choose Django or Flask, in case you want to start easy and fast and have all the resources you need at your fingertips. If you are a newbie and your priority is to understand the process from inside and create something smaller, you may try CherryPy or Pyramid.

At inVerita, our experts will help you to choose the best Python framework for web development based on your needs, business goal, and deadlines. Contact us to get a consultation.

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