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Today, a software engineer is not limited to a couple of tools for development so aren’t business owners. However, the world of technology and backend development, in particular, is a dynamic, constantly evolving landscape. 

In this article, find the list of the most used backend frameworks with their strong and weak sides so you can make informed decisions for your future projects.

How Backend Frameworks Differ From Others

Web backend frameworks are specifically designed to handle the server-side logic of web applications. They facilitate tasks such as database interactions, server configuration, API development, and user authentication, whereas frontend frameworks focus on rendering the visual elements and managing user experience on the browser.

Advantages of Backend Frameworks


They provide a structured and reliable environment for developing server-side applications, including built-in features like routing, middleware, and error handling, which help in building stable and maintainable applications.


Web backend frameworks are designed to integrate seamlessly with various databases, third-party services, and other tools. They offer libraries and plugins that simplify the process of connecting to external APIs, cloud services, and microservices architectures. This integration capability accelerates development and allows developers to build complex applications efficiently​.


Web backend frameworks are built to handle increasing loads by efficiently managing resources and providing features like load balancing and horizontal scaling. Frameworks like Spring Boot and ASP.NET Core, for example, offer robust support for scaling applications across multiple servers, ensuring that applications can grow to meet user demand without significant reengineering​

Community Support

Popular backend frameworks benefit from large, active communities that contribute to their development and provide support. This community involvement ensures a wealth of resources, including tutorials, documentation, and third-party libraries. It also means that issues are quickly identified and resolved, and new features are regularly added to keep the frameworks up-to-date with industry standards​.


Security is a top priority for цуи backend frameworks, which often include built-in measures to protect against common vulnerabilities like SQL injection, cross-site scripting, and cross-site request forgery.

Best Backend Frameworks in 2024

Now, let’s move the list of best backend frameworks.

most popular backend frameworks

# Django

Django is named the most popular backend framework by many programmers. It’s an open-source Python web framework, that facilitates swift development with concise code and a sleek design. Its user-friendly syntax streamlines the development process, and its MVT (Model-View-Template) architecture ensures a visually appealing and highly efficient web app design. Offering robust security features and scalability, Django is often referred as the fastest backend framework, versatile, and suitable for projects ranging from simple one-page websites to intricate scientific computing systems.

Django pros and cons

Pros of Django

  • Rapid Development

Django is built for fast development, allowing applications to move from concept to market quickly. Its extensive built-in features minimize the amount of code needed to develop complex applications.

  • Robust Security

Django includes strong security features out of the box, protecting against common web attacks like SQL injection, cross-site scripting, and cross-site request forgery.

  • High Scalability

Designed to handle high traffic volumes efficiently, Django ensures fast loading times and seamless integration with various technologies. It optimizes elements like images, CSS, and HTML, and balances resource usage for peak application performance.

  • Flexibility and Versatility

Django’s modular design lets developers easily swap out components or add new functionalities. Its large community and extensive documentation enhance its flexibility, making rapid changes during development straightforward.

Django Limitations

  • Not a Good Choice for Small Projects

Django might be overkill for projects with limited features and requirements. Its extensive coding can lead to significant server processing time and bandwidth consumption during development, making it better suited for scalable or large-scale projects.

  • Monolithic Framework

As a monolithic framework with few dependencies, Django's need for backward compatibility across all modules can slow down its evolution.

  • Limited Concurrent Request Handling

Unlike some other popular frameworks, Django struggles with handling multiple requests simultaneously, posing challenges for developers working on the codebase.

# Laravel

Laravel is also one of the most used backend frameworks. It’s an open-source PHP-based web framework known for its advanced features like routing, middleware, template engine, and Object-Relational Mapping (ORM) system, simplifying web development. With its elegant syntax and user-friendly tools, Laravel has become a popular choice among PHP developers for creating fully functional websites with customized logic.

laravel pros and cons

Pros of Laravel

  • Enhanced Security 

Laravel offers robust built-in security features to developers, such as ORM using PDO to prevent SQL injection and effective handling of cross-site request forgery and scripting risks, ensuring the safety of web applications.

  • Accelerated Time-To-Market

 Operating on a modular basis, Laravel provides pre-built functions and structures aligned with the latest PHP principles, facilitating the rapid development of responsive web applications without extensive manual coding, thus reducing time-to-market and overall costs.

  • Built-in Authentication & Authorization System

 Laravel's authentication and authorization system simplifies implementation, ensuring secure storage and handling of user data, customizability, scalability, and comprehensive documentation, making it an efficient solution for user authentication and authorization in web applications.

  • Eloquent ORM

 Laravel's Eloquent ORM offers an intuitive interface for database interaction, enabling developers to write database-related code using an object-oriented syntax, simplifying development and maintenance tasks while enforcing constraints on database object relationships and enabling PHP-based database queries.

Cons of Laravel

  • Lightweight Framework Limitations

 While Laravel's lightweight nature is advantageous, it may lead to a backlog in database query processing, resulting in reduced performance with increased data congestion.

  • Lack of Payment Services Support

 Laravel lacks native support for handling payment issues on websites, requiring developers to integrate third-party payment services or consider alternative application frameworks for websites requiring payment capabilities.

  • Steep Learning Curve

 Laravel's extensive documentation and feature-rich environment may present a steep learning curve for some developers initially, but with strong support from Laravel and its developer community, transitioning to the framework can be manageable and rewarding.

# Ruby on Rails

Ruby on Rails is an open-source Model View Controller (MVC) framework written in Ruby, designed for web application development and web-server integration. It follows the "don't repeat yourself" (DRY) principle to reduce code duplication and the "convention over configuration" principle, which provides standard configuration settings that usually don't need adjustments.

Ruby on Rails pros and cons

Pros of Ruby on Rails

  • Rapid Development

Ruby on Rails facilitates quick development with its comprehensive libraries and tools, enabling developers to build applications faster. Rails also comes with ActiveRecord, a default ORM system that allows developers to quickly integrate application and application logic, enabling the rapid deployment of a functional prototype that can be expanded with new features later.

  • Conversion Over Configuration

The conversion over configuration principle ensures sensible defaults, reducing the need for configuration and making the development process smoother.

  • Cost-Effective Development

Maintaining a Rails application is cost-effective due to its simplicity, and as an open-source framework, there are no licensing fees. For budget-friendly web development, consulting with Ruby on Rails is an excellent choice.

  • Large and Active Community

Ruby on Rails boasts a strong community of developers who continuously contribute to and improve the framework. This collaboration happens on GitHub, where developers identify and report issues, and the Rails team addresses and resolves them accordingly.

Cons of Ruby on Rails

  • Development Speed

RoR is still slower compared to other frameworks like Django and Golang which can be a drawback for performance-critical applications.

  • Lack of Flexibility

Ruby on Rails comes with many default modules and dependencies, making it easy to start a project quickly. However, if your project requires unique functionalities, these default modules may limit your flexibility. You may face challenges adjusting Rails to meet your specific needs, ultimately leading to a decision between extensive modifications or opting for a more suitable framework.

  • High Cost of Development Mistakes

In Ruby on Rails, incorrect architecture decisions made early in the project can be costly. The rapid prototyping nature of Rails may lead inexperienced teams to make mistakes that impact performance later on. These structural issues are challenging to address due to Rails' tightly coupled components, such as excessive reliance on ActiveRecord, causing maintainability issues in the future.

  • Challenges with Documentation

Finding reliable documentation, especially for less popular gems and libraries using mixins, can be challenging in Ruby on Rails. Often, the test suite serves as documentation, requiring developers to rely on it to understand behavior. While the test suite is typically up-to-date, relying solely on code exploration can be time-consuming compared to written documentation.

# Express.js

Express.js is one of the most popular backend frameworks. It’s a versatile and lightweight web application framework for Node.js, renowned for its simplicity and flexibility. Following the minimalist philosophy, Express.js provides developers with a robust set of features for building web applications and APIs. Its unopinionated nature allows developers to structure their applications according to their preferences, enabling rapid development and easy scalability. 

With Express.js, developers can leverage middleware functions to handle requests, route handling for defining application endpoints, and template engines for rendering dynamic content.

Express.js proś and cons

Pros of Express.js

  • Simplicity and Minimalism

Express.js is a lightweight backend framework that provides essential tools for building web applications without imposing unnecessary features.

  • Middleware Support

Its middleware simplifies the handling of requests and responses, making it easy to add functionality like authentication, logging, and error handling.

  • Versatility

Express.js can be used to build various types of web applications, including APIs, single-page applications, and full-stack web applications. Its flexible architecture allows developers to adapt it to different project requirements and development styles.

Cons of Express.js

  • Lack of Built-in Features

Express.js provides only the basic building blocks for web development, so developers may need to rely on third-party libraries or write custom code for more advanced features.

  • Manual Configuration

Developers may need to manually configure certain aspects of their applications, such as routing and error handling, which can be time-consuming.

  • Lack of Opinionation

While flexibility is a strength, it can also be a drawback for developers who prefer a more opinionated framework with built-in conventions.

# Flask

Flask is a good alternative to Django for smaller apps that can be scaled up if needed. It's lightweight and easy to use, making it great for smaller projects, but it's also powerful enough to handle larger tasks if necessary. With Flask, you get simplicity and flexibility in one package, along with ample community support and documentation to guide you.

With Flask, developers have access to a wide range of extensions and libraries, enabling them to add functionality such as authentication, database integration, and RESTful APIs with ease. Its integrated development server and built-in debugger make it easy to test and debug applications during development.

Flask pros and cons

Pros of Flask

  • Simplicity and Ease of Use

Flask is lightweight and easy to get started with, making it ideal for beginners and small projects.

  • Flexibility

It doesn't impose a lot of dependencies or project structure, allowing developers to use the tools and libraries they prefer.

  • Extensive Documentation

Flask has comprehensive and clear documentation, which helps developers understand and use the framework effectively.

  • Modular Design

Flask’s modular design allows for adding extensions and integrating third-party libraries easily.

Cons of Flask

  • Limited Built-in Features

Unlike some larger frameworks, Flask doesn't come with built-in features like authentication or database ORM, which means more setup and configuration is required.

  • Less Suitable for Large Projects

Flask’s minimalistic nature may lead to challenges in managing very large and complex projects compared to more opinionated frameworks.

  • Potential Security Concerns

Flask requires developers to handle security concerns manually, which can be a drawback if not done properly.

  • Dependency Management

Since Flask relies heavily on extensions, managing dependencies can become complex.

# Spring Boot

Spring Boot is an open-source framework that enhances Spring development by automating configuration, making it faster and easier to create and deploy Spring applications.

Unlike the traditional Spring framework, which prioritizes flexibility, Spring Boot focuses on reducing code complexity and simplifying web application development. It uses annotations and pre-set configurations to speed up the development process, enabling the creation of standalone applications with minimal setup required.

Spring Boot pros and cons

Pros of Spring Boot

  • Rapid Development

Spring Boot simplifies the setup and development process, allowing developers to create applications quickly and efficiently.

  • Auto-Configuration

It automatically configures Spring applications based on the dependencies present in the project, reducing the need for manual configuration.

  • Standalone Applications

Spring Boot enables the creation of standalone applications that can run independently, without the need for an external application server.

  • Microservices Support

Spring Boot is well-suited for developing microservices, with features and tools designed specifically to support this architecture.

  • Comprehensive Ecosystem

It integrates seamlessly with the wider Spring ecosystem, providing access to a variety of tools and libraries for different aspects of application development.

Cons of Spring Boot

  • Complexity in Large Applications

While it simplifies development for small to medium-sized applications, managing very large applications can become complex due to hidden configurations and dependencies.

  • Overhead

The auto-configuration and embedded server features can add overhead to the application, which may not be ideal for all use cases, particularly lightweight or highly optimized applications.

  • Limited Flexibility

The conventions and auto-configuration that make Spring Boot easy to use can also limit flexibility, making it harder to customize certain aspects of the application.

  • Learning Curve

For developers new to Spring or Spring Boot, there is a steep learning curve due to the extensive feature set and configuration options.


ASP.NET Core is also frequently listed as the most popular backend framework. It’s a modern, open-source framework developed by Microsoft for building web applications and APIs. It is designed to be cross-platform, enabling applications to run on Windows, macOS, and Linux. ASP.NET Core is a complete rewrite of the ASP.NET framework, emphasizing performance, flexibility, and ease of development.

The framework is modular, allowing developers to include only the necessary components, reducing the overall footprint of the application. It supports Docker, allowing applications to be containerized for consistent deployment across different environments. Developers can also add functionalities as needed through NuGet packages, ensuring that the application remains lightweight and performant.

ASP.NET pros and cons

Pros of ASP.NET Core

  • High Performance

Known for its high performance, ASP.NET Core applications can handle high traffic efficiently.

  • Cross-Platform Development

Software engineers can develop and deploy applications on various operating systems, including Windows, macOS, and Linux.

  • Modular and Lightweight

Developers can include only necessary components, making the application lightweight and reducing overhead.

  • Built-in Dependency Injection

Promotes better code organization and easier testing through built-in dependency injection.

  • Unified Framework

Combines MVC and Web API into a single framework, simplifying the development process.

Cons of ASP.NET Core

  • Frequent Updates

The rapid evolution of the framework can lead to frequent updates, requiring developers to stay current with changes.

  • Learning Curve

New concepts and paradigms might be challenging for developers transitioning from older ASP.NET versions or other frameworks.

  • Compatibility Issues

Some legacy .NET libraries and tools may not be compatible, necessitating rewrites or adjustments.

# Koa.js

Koa.js is a minimalist and flexible Node.js web application framework designed by the team behind Express.js. It aims to be a smaller, more expressive, and robust foundation for web applications and APIs.

By utilizing generators, Koa eliminates the need for callbacks and significantly enhances error handling. Koa's core does not include any middleware, offering instead a sophisticated set of methods that streamline the process of writing servers, making it both quick and enjoyable.

Koa.js pros and cons

Pros of Koa.js

  • Lightweight and Modular

Its core does not include any middleware, providing a very lightweight starting point. This allows developers to pick and choose only the middleware they need. Koa also encourages modular design by using a small set of powerful methods for building applications.

  • Asynchronous Programming

Koa leverages modern JavaScript features such as async/await, making asynchronous code more readable and easier to write compared to traditional callback-based approaches.

  • Centralized Error Handling

 Koa provides a centralized way to handle errors, making it easier to manage and log errors across the application.

Cons of Koa.js

  • Less Mature Ecosystem

Koa has a smaller community and ecosystem compared to more established frameworks like Express.js, which might result in fewer third-party plugins and resources.

  • Steep Learning Curve

Developers coming from other frameworks, especially those used to callback-based middleware, may need time to adjust to Koa’s async/await and middleware composition patterns.

  • Lack of Bundled Middleware

Since Koa does not come with built-in middleware for common tasks like routing, developers must choose and configure their own middleware, which can be time-consuming.

# Nest JS

NestJS is a progressive Node.js framework built with TypeScript, designed for building efficient, reliable, and scalable server-side applications. It leverages modern JavaScript, is built with TypeScript (but also supports pure JavaScript), and uses robust architectural patterns, like the modularity of Microservices. 

NestJS provides an out-of-the-box application architecture that is ready to use and allows developers to create highly testable, maintainable, and scalable applications. Its use of TypeScript enhances the development experience by providing strong typing and advanced features like decorators, which help in building robust and clean code. The framework is inspired by Angular, making it a familiar choice for developers with experience in frontend development using Angular.

NestJS pros and cons

Pros of Nest JS

  • Modularity

The modular architecture of NestJS allows developers to organize code into separate modules, making it easy to manage and scale applications.

  • TypeScript Integration

Native support for TypeScript brings type-safety, advanced tooling, and better code maintainability.

  • Extensibility

With a rich set of built-in decorators and modules, NestJS supports a wide range of use cases and integrates seamlessly with other libraries and frameworks.

  • Testing

NestJS provides robust tools and utilities for unit testing and end-to-end testing, ensuring high code quality and reliability.

Cons of Nest JS

  • Complexity

The framework's comprehensive feature set can introduce complexity, particularly for developers who are not familiar with the architectural patterns it enforces.

  • Overhead

For small projects, the overhead of setting up and maintaining the NestJS framework might be more than necessary compared to more lightweight solutions like Express.js.

  • Learning Curve

While beneficial, the extensive use of TypeScript and advanced concepts such as dependency injection and decorators can present a steep learning curve for developers new to these technologies.

# Phoenix

Phoenix is a modern web framework built on the Elixir programming language and the Erlang VM, designed for building highly scalable and maintainable applications. It leverages Elixir's functional programming paradigm and the Erlang VM's capabilities for handling large numbers of concurrent connections, making it ideal for real-time applications. Phoenix follows the MVC architecture and provides robust tools and features for building web applications with high performance and low latency.
Phoenix pros and cons

Pros and Phoenix

  • Performance

Phoenix's use of the Erlang VM allows it to achieve impressive performance and scalability, handling high levels of concurrency with minimal resource usage​

  • Real-Time Capabilities

Built-in support for WebSockets through channels makes it easy to build real-time features like chat applications, live notifications, and interactive dashboards​

  • Reliability

Elixir’s functional programming model, along with Erlang’s fault-tolerant capabilities, ensures that applications built with Phoenix are robust and reliable.

  • Ease of Use

Phoenix provides a clean and intuitive syntax, along with comprehensive documentation, making it accessible even for developers new to Elixir.

Cons of Phoenix

  • Learning Curve

Developers unfamiliar with functional programming and Elixir may find the initial learning curve steep compared to more traditional object-oriented languages and frameworks.

  • Smaller Ecosystem

Although growing, the Phoenix and Elixir ecosystem is still smaller compared to more established backend languages like JavaScript, Python, or Java, potentially limiting the availability of third-party libraries and resources​

  • Deployment

While tools are improving, deploying and scaling Phoenix applications can be more complex than more mainstream solutions, requiring knowledge of the Erlang ecosystem and tooling.

Key Takeaways

When picking the best backend framework, there is no black-and-white answer. The choice depends on various factors, including user behavior, project requirements, integration capabilities, security considerations, cost, scalability, industry standards, etc. By carefully considering these factors, project stakeholders can make informed decisions to ensure successful development and deployment.

Frequently Asked Questions
How to choose the most compatible backend framework?
Choosing the best backend framework involves evaluating factors such as project complexity, team expertise, performance needs, and community support. For high-performance and scalable applications, consider robust frameworks like ASP.NET Core or Spring Boot, which offer extensive features and strong corporate backing. If rapid development and simplicity are priorities, frameworks like Django or Ruby on Rails provide built-in tools and conventions that speed up the development process. Express.js is ideal for lightweight and flexible applications, particularly if your team is proficient in JavaScript.
What is the list of the most popular frameworks in 2024?
The list of top backend frameworks includes Express.js, Django, Spring Boot, Ruby on Rails, ASP.NET Core, Laravel, Flask, NestJS, Koa.js, and Phoenix.
Which backend framework is the most popular?
Express.js stands out as one of the most popular backend frameworks. Its popularity stems from its lightweight nature and flexibility, making it ideal for building APIs and web applications with Node.js. Developers appreciate Express.js for its simplicity and powerful routing capabilities, which streamline the development process, therefore, it’s also frequently named as the fastest backend framework. The framework's extensive middleware support allows for easy integration with other libraries and tools, enhancing its functionality and efficiency.
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