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Why Is It So Hard to Find Good Java Developers

The total number of Java developers seems enormous. According to various sources, there are currently from 6,9 to 10 million Java developers and their community continues to grow on a daily basis. Nevertheless, this impressive number is still not enough to cater to the needs of the contemporary market. As of December 2021, there are more than 98 thousand Java developer jobs available in Indeed, and almost half of them are wanted by US companies.

Consequently, many companies decide to outsource software development to offshore vendors which offer a larger talent pool, access to rare skills, faster development, and lower labor and operations costs.

So, where to find a Java developer? What are the levels of qualifications they have and how to estimate the expertise right to hire the best programmers? Let’s find out.

What Are the Types of Java Developers?

Based on the skill set, stack, and the number of years of experience, several types of Java developers are distinguished:

  • Junior;
  • Middle;
  • Senior;
  • Architect.

Qualifications For a Junior Java Developer

The range of experience for junior developers varies up to 2 years in object-oriented programming. It may be a graduate, a person with little work experience, or vice versa - frequently companies tend to set up rather high standards for entry-level candidates as if they were middle devs. Nevertheless, the scope of knowledge for junior Java developers is quite extensive. They are required to have in-depth knowledge of Java, advanced knowledge of one OS minimum, expertise in SQL, and a strong understanding of databases. The fundamental knowledge of other programming languages, for instance, C++, JavaScript, etc, will be an advantage. 

Even a coder with not so much experience can receive good compensation. According to PayScale, the average salary for a Junior developer is around $53,8k annually. The sum varies greatly depending on the country - the highest rate in Australia and USA, while the most cost-effective regions are Eastern Europe and India.

Qualifications For a Middle Java Developer

Requirements for Java developer on the middle level include at least 2-3 years of programming experience and involvement in at least several software projects. A middle engineer should have vast experience in managing Java and Java EE app development, strong knowledge of tools for unit testing, frameworks for building web and enterprise projects, programming high-volume and low-latency systems needed for large scaling, and the ability to carry out comprehensive software analysis, testing, and debugging. Summing up, the mid-level developer is a strong fully-functional engineer who is able to write and maintain high-quality code, execute and implement software tests, and can contribute to all phases of the software development process.

A middle-level Java programmer earns up to 30% more than a junior. According to Glassdoor, a mid-level Java developer earns $71k a year compared to a junior who earns $63,5k according to the same source.  

Qualifications For a Senior Java Developer

Senior Java engineers have 4+ years of commercial experience and significantly contribute to the development lifecycle. The key skills for Java developer are: strong knowledge of all Java frameworks, solid paradigm and principle skills (OOP, DDD, SOLID), security patterns, database theory, architectural, distributed, and design patterns

Senior Java developers focus on enterprise integration, use best software development practices, high coding standards, and write highly performant and testable code.

The average salary for senior java developers also greatly varies depending on the country. A senior Java dev in the USA earns $105,5k while in Ukraine, for example, $41k, according to PayScale.

Qualifications For an Architect Java Developer

A Java architect helps a company to achieve long-term application goals by designing the architecture to support the Java environment. Skills for Java developer architect include all the skills a senior Java developer has but besides strong Java expertise, an architect Java developer is also required to oversee technical development teams, communicate with senior management, and implement software system solutions for companies. 

According to PayScale research, the average salary of a Java architect is $118,2k.

On Which Factors Developer Salary Depends?

Experience Level

Companies tend to pay more for senior and architect developers as they bring more value to a company and as a result, more revenue. Experienced developers understand the entire software development lifecycle and tooling, provide technical leadership to team members, and ensure high code quality. On the contrary, a junior or an entry-level developer needs to receive more guidance from team members and is likely to be less effective.

average salary of Java developers


Location plays one of the crucial roles in determining the salary of the developer, consequently, the cost of your project. The US remains one of the largest and most expensive markets for hiring developers. Though if you consider reducing expenses for the development process, you should think about outsourcing destinations that offer the same services and expertise but at lower rates such as Ukraine, Poland, India, etc. Some of the rates examples in different countries are:


Developers’ salary also depends on the level of theoretical knowledge and practical skills of the candidates. Java professionals and beginners have to constantly master new technology, receive certifications, attend courses and workshops. Expertise in Apache Struts, Eclipse Java IDE, Oracle, J2EE, Enterprise Java Beans, etc., significantly affects Java developer salary.

How to hire Java developers? As soon as you have a clear understanding of the scope of your project, you should choose one of the cooperation models that fits your requirements the best. This choice will affect the final success of your product, its time-to-market, and the total sum of money you will spend on development and maintenance. There are three most popular options:

# Freelance Developers

For short-term and small projects, hiring freelancers is a very cost-effective solution. You don’t have to pay for insurance, vacations, full-time salary, and much more. Typically, you choose between fixed cost, hourly, and retainer-based pay. This approach helps you to save up to 50% of the expenses you would spend on full-time employees. You also get unlimited access to different expertise and a large talent pool. Though hiring freelance developers also has a lot of risks such as fake portfolios, data breaches, not meeting deadlines, etc.

advantages and disadvantages of freelance developers

# In-house Team

If you start a big project that requires constant updates, maintenance, and post-launch support — you can hire an in-house team that will work from your office. Hiring an in-house team has a lot of benefits as you can fully control the development process and maintain daily communication with a team. On the other hand, hiring an in-house team leads to great expenses for the recruitment process, office, equipment, and company perks.
advantages and disadvantages of in-house team

# Outsourcing

Outsourcing is the cooperation model suitable for both small and large size projects. It helps companies to save large sums of money on recruitment, equipment, company perks, and choose the best developers from all over the world. Unlike a freelance model, outsourcing provides full legal and financial support and guarantees full data security and meeting deadlines on the basis of the contract signed by two parties.

advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing

Now, let’s see how to find Java developers.

Where to Find Top Java Developers?

  1. Personal recommendations. Address your acquaintances who have already developed software for their business or know someone who can give you a piece of advice on how to find Java developers based on their own experience. They can recommend trustworthy engineers or software companies they have collaborated with.
  2. Developers’ forums. The majority of software developers regularly spend time on different tech forums to exchange experience, ask for advice, and discuss the latest progress in technology. Stack Overflow, The Verge, Code Project, XDA Developers, and  Oracle Java Forum are some of the most popular places for engineers to visit.
  3. Tech conferences. Every big city hosts developers’ conferences a few times per year. You can visit them or delegate someone to meet the best Java developers. Even if those whom you meet there aren’t currently looking for job opportunities, they will definitely appreciate your effort and recommend someone.
  4. Independent platforms. Clutch, GoodFirms, and Appfutura are independent platforms that list the best software development companies, the technologies they specialize in, and most importantly, verified customers’ reviews.
  5. Freelance platforms. Freelancer, Toptal, Hired, Codementor, Guru, Upwork, and PeoplePerHour offer information about freelance developers, their portfolio, experience, and list of customers. Choosing a freelancer might be tempting because of the lower price, though there are many risks to avoid which you must carefully check your candidates.
  6. LinkedIn. Undoubtedly, one of the most popular places for hiring is LinkedIn. There you can see who is open to new offers, check their CV, and also easily find and contact previous customers.

Java Developer Interview Questions

Here are some of the most frequently asked questions based on our recruitment process, other top companies hiring Java developers, and examples from some popular websites.

  1. Which Java framework do you work with and why?
  2. Why is the main method static in Java?
  3. Can you define an abstract class?
  4. What method do you use while declaring a class in Java code?
  5. Name the C++ features missing in Java.
  6. What are the pros and cons of arrays in Java?
  7. What are the pros and cons of Hibernate over JDBC?
  8. How can you catch an exception thrown by another thread in Java?
  9. When can you use a super keyword?
  10. Can you define the difference between HashMap and HashTable in Java?
  11. What are static initializers and when can you use them?
  12. How do you format text using the printf() method in Java?
  13. Can you explain the concept of constructor overloading?
  14. What is the difference between a String, StringBuffer, and a StringBuilder?
  15.  What is meant by data encapsulation?
  16. Can you explain the difference between JVM, JRE, and JDK in Java?
  17. Which phenomenon relates to Java: “pass by value” or “pass by reference”?
  18. How can you achieve Object Cloning in Java?
  19. What are the marker interfaces in Java?
  20. Can you explain the term “Double Brace Initialization” in Java?

Final Note

Why is it so hard to find good Java developers? Judging from our experience, the contemporary market offers a wide range of candidates. Though to choose the best one for your project you need to clearly define its scope and make sure that your candidate has the technical and soft skills to meet the requirements.

At inVerita, we have gathered top developers that specialize in a full range of services: from web apps to enterprise-level platforms. We offer different cooperation models based on your project size, timeframes, and budget.

If you’re interested in hiring Java developers, just fill in the form, and our experts will get in touch with you.
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